English grammar is very useful and important. It helps us in our higher studies and even it helps us to speak proper english with others. Learning english is very important for each and every person. English is an international language. Wherever we go english helps us a lot. Everyone should know proper english without any grammatical mistakes. Everyone should speak in a proper manner. So here we are going to discuss one of the topics in english grammar that is parts of speech.
English Grammar Parts of speech Definition with Examples
Types Of English Grammar Parts of speech
There are 8 parts of speech they are:
A noun is a naming word. It denotes the name of a person, place, thing, language, bird, animal, insect, creature, day, month, river, hill, mountain, branch of knowledge, quality, idea etc. Nouns are classified as Proper nouns and common nouns.
- Proper noun: A proper noun is the name of a particular person, place, river, country etc. ex: Gandhi, hyderabad, english, january, godavari etc
- Common noun: A common noun refers to a kind of class of things ex: Father, poet, capital, animal etc. Common nouns are classified into countable nouns and uncountable nouns.
- Countable nouns: These nouns can be counted and have singular and plural forms. Ex: boy-boys, town-towns, tooth-teeth etc
- Uncountable nouns: These nouns can not be counted and have no plural forms. Ex: milk, rice, water etc. Common nouns are again classified into four categories: concrete nouns, abstract nouns, material nouns and collective nouns.
- Concrete noun: These nouns represent objects that can be seen, touch. Ex: a student, an ant, a plant etc
- Abstract noun: These nouns represent something that cannot be seen or touched but can only imagine. Ex: death, knowledge, taste, action, beauty, grammar etc.
- Material noun: These are words like gold, silver, mercury, iron etc Collective noun: These are words like police, parliament, committee, jury etc.
A pronoun is a word which is used instead of a noun or a noun phrase. Pronouns are classified into various types.
- Personal pronoun: These are those pronouns which stand for the persons speaking, spoken to or spoken of.
- Reflexive pronoun: These are used as a substitutes for nouns and the subject turns back upon the subject. Ex: I hurt myself
- Emphatic pronoun: These are used for emphasis. Ex: I myself will do it.
- Demonstrative pronoun: These are used to point some persons, things they stand for. Ex: This is not my mobile
- Indefinite pronoun: These are used to refer to persons or things in a general way. Ex: One should take care of one’s parents in their old age
- Interrogative pronoun: These are those pronouns which are used for asking questions. Ex: Whose is this book?
- Distributive pronoun: These are used to show things or persons taken as one at a time. Ex: They gave each of us a gift.
- Reciprocal pronoun: These are used to show the mutual relationship. Ex: Viraj and Mahima loved each other.
- Relative pronoun: These are used to relate or refer back to some noun going before. Ex: I met a stranger who was a pilot
An adjective denotes the quality of a noun or a pronoun. Articles and some other words like articles-no, some, any, many, few, little etc also function like adjectives. Adjectives express quality, quantity, numbers etc.
A verb is a word that describes an action, a.state, possession, a process or an experience. A verb always carries a tense. According to their position verbs are classified as main verbs and auxiliary verbs. Main verbs can be transitive or intransitive
Transitive verb: It takes an object
Ex: Vinay drinks a cup of green tea daily. Drink-what?-a cup of green tea.
They helped the villagers. Helped-whom?-the villagers.
Here ‘drink’ ‘help’ are transitive verbs.
Intransitive verb: It denotes not to take an object.
Ex: I wake up early in the morning
Many hindi actors live in mumbai
Here ‘wake up’ and ‘live’ are intransitive verbs
Auxiliary verb: These are classified as primary and modal auxiliary verbs.
The primary auxiliary verbs are forms of ‘be’ ‘do’ and ‘have’
The modal auxiliary verbs are can, could, may, might, must, shall, should, will, would etc.
An adverb is a word that modifies a verb or an adjective or an adverb. An adverb indicates how, when, where
Ex: Come here now
Koushik eats slowly
Parimala walked very fast to the office today
A conjunction is a word that is used to link words, phrases, clauses or sentences. Conjunctions are classified as coordinating conjunctions and subordinating conjunctions.
- Coordinating conjunction: This links similar parts of words like phrases, clauses and sentences.
- Subordinating conjunction: It introduces a subordinate clause. Ex: Rajeev said that he would do business
A preposition is a word which is placed before a noun or pronoun to show in what relationship the person or thing denoted by it stands in regard to something else. Prepositions are of different types
- Prepositions which indicate time Ex: At, on, in, by, after, before, for, since, until etc
- Phrasal preposition
Ex: Due to, on account, because of, according to, in spite of, in order to, on behalf of etc.
- Possessive preposition: Of
Ex: The climate of ooty is pleasant
Ex: Besides, among, until, above, below, under, beneath, over, behind, with etc
An interjection is a word which is used to express a sudden feeling of emotion, excitement, sorrow etc to invite the listener’s attention.
Ex: Ah!, Aha!, Oh!, Hurrah!, Bravo!, Alas! Etc
These are the 8 parts of speech which are very important and will be very useful in higher studies. Learning parts of speech is very important. If we want to speak proper english then we need to learn parts of speech.