Introduction: This chapter helps you to know about physical features of india.
India has all the major physical features of the earth, mountains, plains, deserts, plateaus and islands. The land of India exhibits great physical diversity. Geographically, the peninsular plateau is one of the oldest landforms on Earth’s surface. The Himalayas and the northern plains are recent territories. The northern plains are formed by alluvial deposits.
- Total area of india 3.28 million sq. kms
- India is 7th largest country in world
- Longitudinal extent of india between 68°7’and 97°25′ east
- Latitudinal extent of india between 8°4′ to 37°6′ North
- According to population india is 2nd largest country
Neighbouring countries of India are 7. And island neighbours of india is 2
Island neighbor countries are 2
- Sri lanka
Major Physiographic Divisions
The physical properties of India are classified under the following physiographic categories:
- The Himalayan Mountains
- The Northern Plains
- The Peninsular Plateau
- The Indian Desert
- The Coastal Plains
- The Island
Let us know about all this topics
The Himalayan Mountains
The Himalayan mountains stretch along the northern borders of India. These mountain ranges run from west to east from the Indus to the Brahmaputra. The Himalayan range consists of 3 parallel ranges.
- The range to the north is called the Great or Inner Himalayas or Himadri. It is the most continuous range with the highest peaks at an average altitude of 6,000 meters
- South of the Himalayas, this range forms the most rugged mountain system known as the Himachal or Lower Himalayas.
Pir Panjal Range Farms is a long and significant range
- The folds of the great Himalayas are unparalleled in nature. The main part of this part of the Himalayas is composed of granite.
The Himalayas are also divided on the basis of western to eastern regions.
- The part of the Himalayas between the Indus and the Satluj is traditionally known as the Punjab Himalayas, but regionally as Kashmir and the Himachal Himalayas.
- The Kali and Teesta rivers divide the Himalayas of Nepal and the part between the Teesta and Dihang rivers is called the Assam Himalayas.
The northern plains
The northern plain is formed by the interaction of the 3 major river systems along with the Indus, Ganges and Brahmaputra along with their tributaries. It covers an area of 7 lakh square kilometers.
The northern plain is broadly divided into 3 sections as follows:
- The western part of the north plain is referred to as Punjab plains. The plain was formed by the Indus and its tributaries – Jhelum, Chenab, Ravi, Beas and Satluj.
- The Gangetic plain stretches between the Ghaggar and Teesta rivers. It is spread over the states of North India, Haryana, Delhi, UP, Bihar, and to some extent Jharkhand and West Bengal.
- Brahmaputra Maidan is located in the state of Assam.
The Peninsular Plateau
The Peninsular Plateau is a table of old crystalline, igneous and metamorphic rocks. It was formed due to the breaking and drifting of Gondwanaland. One of the distinctive features of the peninsular plateau is the black soil area known as the Deccan Trap.
The Indian Desert
The Indian desert is located on the western edge of the Aravalli Hills.
- The sandy plain land that is covered with sand dunes.
- The region receives less than 150 mm of rainfall per year.
- It has a dry climate with little vegetation.
The Coastal Plains
The coastal plain is a flat, inland land next to the sea. On the east and west sides of the peninsular plateau, 2 narrow strips of plain land appear, known as the East Coast Plain and the West Coast Plain, respectively.
The eastern coastal plains are vast tracts of land between the Eastern Ghats and the Bay of Bengal. In the north, it is called the Northern Sarkar, and in the south it is called the Coromandel Coast. Major rivers such as the Mahanadi, The Godavari, the Krishna and the Cauvery form an extensive delta along this coast. Lake Chilika is an important feature along the east coast
The island is a sub-continental land surrounded by water. The archipelago of Lakshadweep is made up of small coral islands formerly known as Lakadiv, Minicoy and Amindivi.
The entire group of islands is divided into two border categories
- Andaman in the north
- Nicobar to the south