Direct speech: we repeat the speaker’s actual words without making any grammatical changes in writing, we use quotation marks (‘’….”) to show direct speech. Directed speech is also known as quoted speech.
Indirect speech: we report the speaker’s words without using quotation marks. In indirect speech which is also known as reported speech, we report what someone has said using an introductory reporting verb and a reported clause. In reported speech, the actual words of the original speaker are usually changed. Notice the changes in pronouns (you–he and I–he); time and place indicators (tomorrow–the next day); and tenses (are going–was going, am going–was going).How does direct speech change to reported speech?
Changing from direct to reported speech
When we change from direct to reported speech, we make the following changes:
We often have to change the pronouns I / me/ my / we / our / us / this / these etc., in direct speech to he / she / him / her / his / they / their / them / that / those etc., in reported speech.
For example:Sheila: ’’I work in your college’’.—sheila said (that) she worked in my office.
Time and place makers
Depending upon the situation, we may need to change the words indicating time and place.